Because the net variation in state properties during a thermodynamic cycle is zero, it forms a closed loop on a PV diagram. A PV diagram's axis shows pressure () and axis shows volume (). The area enclosed by the loop is the work () done by the process:
This work is equal to the balance of heat (Q) transferred into the system:
Equation (2) makes a cyclic process similar to an isothermal process: even though the internal energy changes during the course of the cyclic process, when the cyclic process finishes the system's energy is the same as the energy it had when the process began.
If the cyclic process moves clockwise around the loop, then W will be positive, and it represents a heat engine. If it moves counterclockwise, then W will be negative, and it represents a heat pump.
Each Point in the CycleDescription of each point in the thermodynamic cycles.
1→2: Isentropic Expansion: Constant entropy (s), Decrease in pressure (P), Increase in volume (v), Decrease in temperature (T)
3→4: Isentropic Compression: Constant entropy (s), Increase in pressure (P), Decrease in volume (v), Increase in temperature (T)
4→1: Isochoric Heating: Constant volume (v), Increase in pressure (P), Increase in entropy (S), Increase in temperature (T)
A List of Thermodynamic Processes:
Thermodynamic power cycles are the basis for the operation of heat engines, which supply most of the world's electric power and run the vast majority of motor vehicles. Power cycles can be organized into two categories: real cycles and ideal cycles. Cycles encountered in real world devices (real cycles) are difficult to analyze because of the presence of complicating effects (friction), and the absence of sufficient time for the establishment of equilibrium conditions. For the purpose of analysis and design, idealized models (ideal cycles) are created; these ideal models allow engineers to study the effects of major parameters that dominate the cycle without having to spend significant time working out intricate details present in the real cycle model.
Power cycles can also be divided according to the type of heat engine they seek to model. The most common cycles used to model internal combustion engines are the Otto cycle, which models gasoline engines, and the Diesel cycle, which models diesel engines. Cycles that model external combustion engines include the Brayton cycle, which models gas turbines, the Rankine cycle, which models steam turbines, the Stirling cycle, which models hot air engines, and the Ericsson cycle, which also models hot air engines.The clockwise thermodynamic cycle indicated by the arrows shows that the cycle represents a heat engine. The cycle consists of four states (the point shown by crosses) and four thermodynamic processes (lines).
For example, the pressure-volume mechanical work output from the heat engine cycle (net work out), consisting of 4 thermodynamic processes, is:
If no volume change happens in process 4-1 and 2-3, equation (3) simplifies to:
Heat pump cycles
Thermodynamic heat pump cycles are the models for household heat pumps and refrigerators. There is no difference between the two except the purpose of the refrigerator is to cool a very small space while the household heat pump is intended to warm a house. Both work by moving heat from a cold space to a warm space. The most common refrigeration cycle is the vapor compression cycle, which models systems using refrigerants that change phase. The absorption refrigeration cycle is an alternative that absorbs the refrigerant in a liquid solution rather than evaporating it. Gas refrigeration cycles include the reversed Brayton cycle and the Hampson-Linde cycle. Multiple compression and expansion cycles allow gas refrigeration systems to liquify gases.